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In the early days of the internet, websites often consisted of static data in an HTML page. But now that web applications have become more interactive and dynamic, it has become increasingly necessary to do intensive operations like make external network requests to retrieve API data. To handle these operations in JavaScript, a developer must use asynchronous programming techniques. Since JavaScript is a single-threaded programming language with a synchronous execution model that proccesses one operation after another, it can only process one statement at a time. However, an action like requesting data from an API can take an indeterminate amount of time, depending on the size of data being requested, the speed of the network connection, and other factors. If API calls were performed in a synchronous manner, the browser would not be able to handle any user input, like scrolling or clicking a button, until that operation completes. This is known as blocking. In order to prevent blocking behavior, the browser environment has many Web APIs that JavaScript can access that are asynchronous, meaning they can run in parallel with other operations instead of sequentially. This is useful because it allows the user to continue using the browser normally while the asynchronous operations are being processed. As a JavaScript developer, you need to know how to work with asynchronous Web APIs and handle the response or error of those operations. In this article, you will learn about the event loop, the original way of dealing with asynchronous behavior through callbacks, the updated ECMAScript 2015 addition of promises, and the modern practice of using async/await.